Category Archives: –MCINTOSH COUNTY GA–

Aerial Views of the Altamaha River

Altamaha River Aerial Wayne County GA Photograph Copyright Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2014Wayne County

As part of the Altamaha Riverkeeper’s ongoing efforts to monitor pollution, I was honored to be able to make an aerial survey of its lower reaches in 2012, culminating in one of my photographs being featured on the front page of the Savannah Morning News. It was a great opportunity that allowed me to really understand the size of the river and its complex ecosystem.

Altamaha RIver Aerial Everett City Glynn Couty GA Railroad Trestle Altamaha River Park Photograph Copyright Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2014Altamaha River Park & Trestle, Glynn County

Though it is a beautiful wilderness, especially when seen from the air, it’s among Georgia’s most polluted rivers. Georgia Power’s Plant Hatch on the Upper Altamaha in Appling County and Rayonier in Wayne County are the main culprits, but hopefully they will soon work harder to balance jobs and the environment. The jury is still out, but with legal actions being sought by Altamaha Riverkeeper, a cleaner river could be on the horizon.

Altamaha River Aerial McIntosh County GA Photograph Copyright Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2014

McIntosh County

The wildest stretches of the river can be found in McIntosh County as the river reaches its delta and finally the Atlantic Ocean.

Altamaha River Delta Aerial McIntosh County GA Photograph Copyright Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2014

Altamaha River Delta, McIntosh County




Crawfordite Meeting Houses of Southeast Georgia

Oak Grove Primitive Baptist Church Hardshell Alabaha Association Crawfordite Architecture Plain Interior Picture Image Photograph Copyright © Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2013Oak Grove Primitive Baptist Church (Interior), Raybon, Brantley County

In his fascinating thesis, The “Gold Standard” of the Wiregrass Primitive Baptists of Georgia: A History of the Crawford Faction of the Alabaha River Primitive Baptist Association, 1842-2007, (Valdosta State University, 2009), Michael Holt makes special note of the architectural distinctions of the Crawfordites: “[An] aspect of the Crawfordite tradition that remains today is the construction style of the meeting houses. While other Primitive Baptist Churches, including those in the Bennettite faction of the Alabaha Association, have begun to use brick, mortar, carpet, and other modern construction techniques, Crawfordite churches remain exactly as they would have appeared over a century ago. They are still fashioned from unfinished pine, with no electricity, carpet, or running water…this austere architecture helps keep the connection with the past strong. It should be noted that in recent years, 0ne part of the church grounds has adopted more modern conveniences. The outhouses that adorned the grounds of all the churches in the association have now been replaced with outdoor restroom facilities with running water, though this change was made primarily to bring the restroom facilities in line with public health regulations. However, this addition has not encroached on the overall intended affect of the architecture…

bethlehem-primitive-baptist-church-bachlott-ga-brantley-county-hardshell-vernacular-architectural-landmark-board-and-batten-walls-unpainted-picture-image-photograph-copyright-©-brian-brown1Bethlehem Primitive Baptist Church, Bachlott, Brantley County

emmaus-baptist-church-saint-st-george-charlton-county-ga-primitive-vernacular-board-and-batten-architecture-near-st-marys-river-picture-image-photograph-©-vanishing-south-georgia-usa-201Emmaus Primtive Baptist Church, St. George, Charlton County

high-bluff-primitive-baptist-church-schlatterville-hoboken-ga-brantley-county-landmark-picture-image-photograph-copyright-©-brian-brown-vanishing-south-georgia-usa-2013High Bluff Primitive Baptist Church, Schlatterville, Brantley County

oak-grove-primitive-baptist-church-raybon-ga-brantley-county-historic-hardshell-congregation-vernacular-architecture-landmark-picture-image-photograph-copyright-©-brian-brown-vanishing-souOak Grove Primitive Baptist Church, Raybon, Brantley County

pilgrims-rest-primitive-baptist-church-waynesville-ga-brantely-county-hardshell-vernacular-architecture-landmark-board-and-batten-walls-picture-image-photograph-copyright-©-brian-brown-vaPilgrim’s Rest Primitive Baptist Church, Waynesville, Brantley County

sardis-primitive-baptist-church-folkston-ga-charlton-county-crawfordite-faction-alabaha-architecture-old-time-religion-picture-image-photograph-copyright-© brian-brown-vanishing-south-georSardis Primitive Baptist Church, Folkston, Charlton County

shiloh-primitive-baptist-church-blackshear-ga-pierce-county-hardshell-religion-landmark-picture-image-photograph-copyright-©-brian-brown-vanishing-south-georgia-usa-2013Shiloh Primitive Baptist Church, Blackshear, Pierce County

smyrna-baptist-church-lulaton-ga-brantley-county-primitive-hardshell-baptist-church-board-and-batten-pine-walls-vernacular-architecture-landmark-picture-image-photograph-copyright-©-brianSmyrna Primitive Baptist Church, Lulaton, Brantley County

vsg-wayfair-primitive-baptist-church-hardshell-cox-ga-mcintosh-county-unpainted-boards-vernacular-architecture-picture-image-photo-©-brian-brown-vanishing-south-georgia-usa-2012Wayfair Primitive Baptist Church, Cox, McIntosh County

The Crawfordites are named for Elder Reuben Crawford. Dr. John G. Crowley, the leading authority on the history of Primitive Baptists notes in his article “The Sacred Harp Controversy in the Original Alabaha Primitive Baptist Association,” Baptist Studies Bulletin July 2004 “[they] emerged as a subset of the Primitive Baptists in the 1860s and 1870s. During the Twentieth Century the “Crawfordites” became the most austere and conservative Primitive Baptists in Georgia, eschewing radio, television, neckties, painted and heated meetinghouses.”  Michael Holt further notes in his thesis: “Whereas every other Primitive Baptist association has altered somewhat from the original tenets of the denomination, the Crawford Faction of the Alabaha has remained unchanged since the time of its founding in 1842…


Dr. Crowley’s article can be accessed here. Just scroll down to Primitive Baptists.

PHOTOGRAPHER’S NOTE: This is not a complete photographic record, as there are more Crawfordite churches in the area I’ve not yet visited. They will be added as they are documented.