Tag Archives: Slavery in South Georgia

George H. Slappey House, 1850s, Marshallville

historic marshallville ga slappey camp house photograph copyright brian brown vanishing south georgia usa 2016

One of Marshallville’s most imposing structures, this home, like so many others of its era, began on a much smaller scale. Originally a four-room frame house, it was built by E. S. Crocker, likely in the mid-1850s. George Hiley Slappey purchased it about 1860 and used slave labor to expand it to its present appearance. It was included in the Historic American Buildings Survey in the 1930s, confirming its architectural significance. It was later owned by the Camp family. Debbie Dunning Liipfert notes that it’s been known as the Camp-Liipfert House since 1980… Wonderful home and happily raised our children and welcome family. It’s also been referred to as the Camp-Slappey House. The image below, in the public domain, dates to the mid-1930s. HABS GA-174. Courtesy Library of Congress.

Slappey House, Marshallville, Macon County, GA Photos from Survey HABS GA-147 public domain courtesy library of congress

West Main Street Residential District, National Register of Historic Places

 

 

Advertisements

5 Comments

Filed under --MACON COUNTY GA--, Marshallville GA

Silas Coleman’s Grave, Irwin County

Silas Coleman Headstone Ex Slave Irwin County GA Photograph Copyright Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2014

I’ve known of this “one-man cemetery” most of my life, and just photographed it last June. I initially thought it was perhaps an eccentric member of the Coleman family, who were large landowners in this part of Irwin County in the late 19th century. I had heard from a commenter that Mr. Coleman might have been a slave but I got busy and didn’t follow up.  When I was in the area last week, my friend Jackie Fussell Golden confirmed the site’s importance, sharing this information from a family history: Silas Coleman was born a slave in Tennessee on 2 January 1837, died 22 April 1921. He was the beloved slave and house servant of Elisha Coleman. One thing very evident about this black gentleman is that the  Coleman, Mann and McDaniel families had very warm feelings of love and affection for him.

The following history of Silas Coleman passed down to Mona McDaniel by her father, T. B. McDaniel, son of Fort Jasper McDaniel and Elmina Mann, and other family members, as well: After the Civil War it appears Coleman was in or had emigrated to Alabama. Since travel was so difficult for blacks during that time, Silas decided to stay and work with Elisha Coleman. When Elisha died, James Mann and Elisha’s daughter Mary lived with her mother. James died soon after 1880 and Silas helped his widow Mary Ann Coleman Mann with the rearing of her five young daughters: Sarah Elmina (McDaniel); Matilda Jane (Hogan); Idella (Luke); Lindsey Columbus (Mann); and Anna Bell (Mann). It is to be noted that their love and respect was such that Silas was allowed to chastise and even spank the girls if necessary.

Silas was said to be a very stern man and did not put up with foolishness. He could not read or write but controlled his money by having someone wrap it up in colored cloth by different denominations. Silas seems to have been a very caring and loving individual as he stayed with these families and helped them for over 60 years, from the time of the Civil War until he died in 1921.

Silas did live alone at one time but as he advanced in years, he moved into the house and lived with Morris and Maurine Mann. When he passed away he was “laid out” in their living room and the funeral was in the woods near the house, in the place that he had stated he wished to be. Lola McDaniel Harper, her mother Elmina, and sister Ruby attended his funeral. This love for him is evidenced by the beautiful monument erected and placed on his grave by Vianna Mann Fletcher.

Data provided by Mona McDaniel Temples and Joy Wilson McDaniel (Joy Wilson McDaniel is also the author of Irwinville Farms Project: The Making of a Community).

11 Comments

Filed under --IRWIN COUNTY GA--

Evergreen Baptist Church, 1844, Bleckley County

Evergreen Baptist Church Bleckley County GA Antbellum Landmark Photograph Copyright Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2014

A historic marker placed in 1955 is located at the entrance to this vernacular Greek Revival church off U.S. Highway 23 north of Cochran. It reads: Evergreen Baptist Church, built in 1844, was split off from old Mt. Horeb Baptist Church, constituted October 15, 1809, which stood at or near the site of the Centenary Methodist Church. On February 14, 1844, the congregation and pastor found themselves locked out of the church by a Brother Burkhalter. Most of the congregation, considered “Mission-minded,” formed a new church, called it Evergreen and constructed this building in 1844. In slavery days Negroes walked for miles to attend its services. In 1864 Negro members outnumbered White, 130 to 86.

The slave gallery is still intact, evidence of a large planter class in the area. Hopefully, the congregation will work to have the church listed on the National Register of Historic Places in the future.

Evergreen Baptist Church Bleckley County GA Antbellum Landmark Slave Gallery Photograph Copyright Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2014

1 Comment

Filed under --BLECKLEY COUNTY GA--

Market House, 1790s, Louisville

Louisville GA Old Market Formerly Thought to be Slave Market Downtown Landmark Symbol Photograph Copyright Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2014

Long known as the “Old Slave Market” this structure is the oldest and best known in Louisville. For years it was said to have been built in 1758 at the intersection of Native American trading roads but recent research suggests it was built during the 1790s as a general market for the newly-founded city. Restored in the 1990s, it still includes many of its original timbers.

While I’m generally suspicious of revisionist history when it leans toward political correctness,  I believe it’s justified here. Perhaps, at the height of Reconstruction and the ensuing Jim Crow era, calling it a “slave market” it was just a way to symbolize segregation in a physical space. I will assert, however, that since slaves were sold here it may have carried that designation after a fashion; it obviously served a more general purpose.

Louisville GA Old Market Formerly Thought to be Slave Market Downtown Landmark Symbol Historic Marker Photograph Copyright Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2014

This historic marker, placed by the City of Louisville, reads: This Market House was built between 1795-1798 as a publicly owned multi-purpose trading house. Louisville newspapers record sales of large tracts, household goods, town lots and slaves by sheriffs, tax collectors, marshals and people of the community at the Market House. The square became the hub of transportation routes that centered on Louisville when the State Capital was located here (1794-1807). Although portions of the structure have been replaced, the Market House has never lost its distinctive style. Inside the Market House hangs a bell that was cast in France for a New Orleans Convent in 1772. The ship carrying the bell was sacked by pirates and the bell was sold in Savannah. It was given to the State Capitol but was used in the Market House as a community warning signal.

Louisville Commercial Historic District, National Register of Historic Places

1 Comment

Filed under --JEFFERSON COUNTY GA--, Louisville GA

Carswell Grove Baptist Church, 1919, Jenkins County

carswell-grove-baptist-church-endangered-african-american-landmark-congregation-started-by-freed-slaves-jenkins-county-ga-photograph-copyright-brian-brown-vanishing-south-georgia-usa-201

UPDATE: This historic church burned to the ground on 16 November 2014, apparently a victim of arson.

When I found the National Register of Historic Places listing for Carswell Grove, I was drawn to its architecture. I was equally interested in its neighbor, Big Buckhead Baptist Church. I knew Carswell Grove was founded by the former slaves of Big Buckhead’s members. In researching further, I uncovered a much more complicated history. I discovered that a lynch mob had burned down its predecessor in April 1919 and began a cycle of racial violence that would come to be known as the Red Summer.

Folk Art Church Sign Carswell Grove Baptist Church Jenkins County GA Photograph Copyright Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2013

Wall Street Journal staff reporter Cameron McWhirter published a powerful essay about the troubling events in the Summer/Autumn 2011 issue of the Harvard Divinity Bulletin. “The Spiritual Ground of History” details the violence of a day that began as a celebration of Carswell Grove’s history and ended in its senseless destruction.

Carswell Grove Baptist Church Endangered African American Landmark Jenkins County GA Photograph Copyright Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2013

McWhirter writes, in part: “One beautiful Sunday morning a few years back, I drove 180 miles southeast of my home in metro Atlanta to visit the remote site of a forgotten mass killing. The site was a church.

On April 13, 1919, the Carswell Grove Baptist Church in Jenkins County, then one of the largest black congregations in East Georgia, with about 1,000 members, held its annual gathering to celebrate its founding. When two white police officers showed up, an altercation erupted. To this day no one is exactly sure what caused the violence, but both police officers and a black man were killed. Another black man, Joe Ruffin, who tried to defuse the situation, was shot in the head and severely wounded.

A white mob quickly formed and went on a rampage. The mob burned the church down, then killed two of Ruffin’s sons—one of them a thirteen-year-old. Rioters threw the bodies in the flames, then spread out through the area, burning black lodges, churches, and cars. They killed several other people; no one knows how many. The wounded Joe Ruffin was saved from the lynch mob only because a white county commissioner drove him at high speed to the nearest big city, Augusta, and put him in the county jail there.

Ruffin was charged with the murder of the two white officers and for months was threatened with lynching. No one was ever charged with the killings of his sons, the destruction of the church, or other crimes against African Americans throughout the county.

Later he told a jury: “There is nobody as worried for what happened at Carswell Grove Church on that awful day as I am.”

“That awful day” was the start of the worst period of anti-black rioting and lynching in American history. Riots erupted across the South, in cities like Charleston and Knoxville. They spread to major northern cities as well, like Chicago and Omaha. A riot paralyzed Washington, D.C., with shooting erupting right outside the White House. The months of April to November 1919 were so bloody that NAACP leader and writer James Weldon Johnson labeled it the “Red Summer.” Despite the shocking violence, the Red Summer has been largely forgotten today.

McWhirter’s fascinating book, Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America (Henry Holt, 2011) begins with a chapter on Carswell Grove and retraces the unprecedented violence of that summer.

National Register of Historic Places

9 Comments

Filed under --JENKINS COUNTY GA--

Liberty Baptist Church, 1858, Grooverville

Liberty Baptist Church Grooverville GA Brooks County Historic Antebellum Architecture Slave Gallery Picture Image Photograph Copyright © Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2013

Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in August, Liberty Baptist is one of the few surviving examples of an antebellum church structure in South Georgia. Though nearby Grooverville Methodist is thought to be antebellum, as well, it’s privately owned and not listed, to my knowledge. The following images show the sanctuary and slave gallery.

Liberty Baptist Church Grooverville GA Brooks County Historic Antebellum Architecture Pews Slave Gallery Interior Picture Image Photograph Copyright © Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2013

Liberty Baptist Church Grooverville GA Brooks County Historic Antebellum Architecture Windows Shutters Pews Pulpit Picture Image Photograph Copyright © Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2013

Liberty Baptist Church Grooverville GA Brooks County Historic Antebellum Architecture Pulpit Picture Image Photograph Copyright © Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2013

The “balcony” seen in the images above is the slave gallery. I’ve photographed several churches with slave galleries, mostly near the coast, and they are generally larger there.

Grooverville GA Brooks County Liberty Baptist Church Antebellum Architecture Slave Gallery Picture Image Photograph Copyright © Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2013

Liberty Baptist Church Grooverville GA Brooks County Historic Antebellum Architecture Pews Slave Gallery Stairwell Picture Image Photograph Copyright © Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2013

And finally, this historic marker placed by the Georgia Historical Commission in 1956: Between 1837-1841 the Baptists in this section were stirred on Missions, Sunday Schools and ministerial support. In 1841 the Ocklochnee anti-Missionary Baptist Assn. passed a ruling to dismiss members believing in the “new fangled institutions of the day.” Disagreeing, Sister Nancy Hagen asked for her letter from Mt. Moriah Church and, at her request, was excommunicated. With Elisha Pack Smith, R. T. Stanaland, James I. Baker, Mrs. Sarah Ann Groover, Mrs. Mary Smith, Mrs. Amanda Denmark and Sam Whitfield, she organized this church. The first pastor was Elder R. J. May. Mt. Moriah Church ceased to exist long ago.

Liberty Baptist Church Grooverville GA Brooks County Historic Marker Antebellum Architecture Picture Image Photograph Copyright © Brian Brown Vanishing South Georgia USA 2013

National Register of Historic Places

6 Comments

Filed under --BROOKS COUNTY GA--, Grooverville GA

Richland Baptist Church, 1845, Twiggs County

historic-richland-baptist-church-twiggs-county-ga-photograph-copyright-brian-brown-vanishing-south-georgia-usa-2013

The Georgia Historical Commission marker reads: Richland Baptist Church was constituted October 5, 1811, with 4 male and 8 female members. The first pastor was Rev. Micajah Fulghum. In June 1861 the ladies of this church made and presented a Confederate flag to the Twiggs Guard. Mrs. Isolene Minter Wimberley made the presentation to Sgt. Warren, color bearer of Co. I, 6th Georgia Regiment. During the war the ladies gathered in the church to prepare first aid kits. Doors of the church closed for regular services in 1911. The Richland Restoration League, Inc., was formed in 1928 to preserve this “Landmark of Christianity”.

historic-richland-baptist-church-twiggs-county-ga-greek-revival-antebellum-photograph-copyright-brian-brown-vanishing-south-georgia-usa-2013

Historic Richland Church is truly a landmark, both in terms of Christianity in Georgia and as an architectural gem, built between 1843-45. It’s one of only a few churches in the Piedmont containing a slave gallery that I know of. Except for the slave gallery, it’s very similar in style to Mount Zion Presbyterian Church in Hancock County. Apparently, its builder also constructed some of Twiggs County’s historic plantation houses, a few of which are still standing today.

historic-richland-baptist-church-twiggs-county-ga-pulpit-photograph-copyright-brian-brown-vanishing-south-georgia-usa-2013

Luckily, the Richland Restoration League which oversees the site today, is very active and keeps a watchful eye over the place. Vandalism in recent years has lead to more diligence, including regular law enforcement patrols, but that is unfortunately a problem for many such historic places. I’ve never been able to understand why anyone would disturb a place of worship. I’d like to thank Billy Humphries, a trustee of the church, for allowing me to publish these images. He has a real passion for its history and has been very helpful. The church is not open to the public though it is still used by descendants for homecoming and other services. For more information, please visit Historic Richland Church.

historic-richland-baptist-church-twiggs-county-ga-boxed-pews-photograph-copyright-brian-brown-vanishing-south-georgia-usa-2013

National Register of Historic Places

 

8 Comments

Filed under --TWIGGS COUNTY GA--